Visitor numbers to Turkey have dropped a lot of the last few years and I think it is such a shame. As a tourist destination, Turkey has a lot to offer with a rich and diverse history, incredible scenery and amazing food. I first travelled through Turkey in 2015 as part of a Silk Road tour and I loved it so much I’ve been back at least once every year since. With a sliding Lira, Turkey is also a good choice for travellers on a budget. With meals costing around $5 it is much cheaper than the rest of Europe. But being such a big and varied country you could be left wondering what are the best destinations in Turkey?
- 1 Why Turkey?
- 2 General Info
- 3 Istanbul
- 4 Eceabat
- 5 Troy
- 6 Selçuk
- 7 Pamukkale
- 8 Ölüdeniz
- 9 Kaş
- 10 Olympos
- 11 Göreme
- 12 Sümela monastery
- 13 Basic Turkish
- 14 Best time to visit
Travelling to a country is made great for me by a few simple things – great people, great food and great sights to see. Turkey has all of this in abundance. When I first entered Turkey our first stop was Trabzon on the Black Sea Coast. I’d arranged a place to stay but my phone decided to malfunction and suddenly I didn’t have directions to the hotel. Speaking zero Turkish I stopped to ask a local man for directions. He didn’t speak any English but he was determined to help me so, unbeknownst to me, he called his son. 5 minutes later his son, who handily spoke English, was with us and was able to call the hotel on my behalf. Then he, along with his dad, drove us to a point where the hotel owners had brought mini buses to collect me and my group. My future visits to Turkey are all filled which similar stories of kindness and helpfulness.
In terms of exploration Turkey has a plethora of historic sites to visit, along with beautiful landscapes to admire along the way. I’ll touch on some of them in this post. And as for the food, well that’s a whole other topic, which I’ll cover in more depth in a separate post.
In this post I will guide you through the best places to visit in Turkey on a classic overland route from Istanbul to Georgia.
- Capital – Istanbul
- Currency – Lira
- Language – Turkish
- Population – 79.8 million
- President – Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Europe or Asia? The Bosphorus marks the edge of Europe so technically Turkey is in both Europe and Asia. However, the majority of the country is in Asia and to me it feels more Asian than European, so we have to go with Asia.
What can I say about this great city that hasn’t already been said before? The city where East meets West, where empires have reached new heights and where cultures have collided. It truly is a magnificent city. It’s the start and finish of the fabulous Silk Road, so it was quite fitting that my first visit to Istanbul was at the conclusion of a 119 day overland adventure that started at the opposite end of the continent, in Mongolia. This is a route that I have since done twice more so time spent in Istanbul before and after trips has added up over the last few years.
There is so much on offer in Istanbul and most of it is well documented so there are no surprises, but here are my favourite things to do. They are focused on the Sultanahmet area of Istanbul.
This incredible building has to be at the top of the list as it’s such an iconic landmark. It has had many incarnations initially as a church, then as a mosque and now as a museum. A fabulous building to admire from outside and from within.
Note – No tripods are allowed in any of the museums.
You can get lost for hours just wandering the alleyways of the Grand Bazaar. Practise your haggling skills as there are certainly some bargains to be had.
More than just a great place to escape the summer heat, the Cistern has 336 columns to admire. It was originally built to store water for the Great Palace and other buildings above but was left to decay under the Ottomans. Thankfully in the 1980’s it was cleaned and renovated for all to enjoy.
There are many rooftop restaurants on which to enjoy a meal and a drink in Sultanahmet. Some offer better views of the Bosphorus and some better views of Hagia Sofia and the Blue Mosque. The Severn Hills restaurant I think offers great views of both. The best tables get reserved so get in early if you want prime position!
On our last visit we stayed at the Antique Hostel. We got a private room for under 30 euros a night which I think is a pretty good deal for a capital city! The hostel has a great terrace for enjoying views of the Bosphorus and is in a perfect central location in Sultanahmet.
Eceabat is a town located on the on the Gallipoli Peninsula on the edge of the Dardanelles. It is the closest town for a visit to the Gallipoli battlefields and memorials. Gallipoli is now a beautiful pine forest but in 1915 it was the site of a horrible battle where thousands of brave men lost their lives. During the First World War the Allied forces attempted a land invasion on the Gallipoli peninsula in order to secure safe passage through the Dardanelles straits. With safe passage they could sail up the Strait and capture Constantinople (Istanbul). The mission was a massive failure resulting in huge losses for both the Allies and the Turks.
Do a tour of Gallipoli and discover some of the horrors of trench life during WWI. If you can plan your visit in line with ANZAC Day, you will be able to attend the moving memorials that take place at the cemeteries.
After a day spent learning about Gallipoli, head to Boomerang bar for a BBQ next to the beach. If you’re feeling brave try some Raki with the owner.
TJ’s Hotel is a Good little hotel run by a great guy called, you guessed it, TJ! TJ is also a tour guide for Gallipoli so if you stay with him he can arrange your tour for the site. Also, if one of your relatives was involved in the landing you can e-mail TJ in advance and he’ll do some research on them for you.
You must know the story of the Trojan wooden horse right? Perhaps seen the movie with Brad Pitt as Achilles? Well, a short distance from Eçeabat across the Dardanelles, you can find the famous site where the Trojan Wars took place.
Take a tour of the 3000bc archaeological site and a have a compulsory selfie with the wooden horse!
Note: The horse that was used in the 2004 movie Troy with Brad Pitt, is now on display in the city centre of Çanakkale. The horse at the site is just a replica 🙂
A new museum was opened in 2018 to celebrate the year of Troy. The museum is on the left just before you enter the main car park. It wasn’t open when we were there but I’ve heard good things. Opposite the museum is a restaurant where you can enjoy some çay and a bite to eat. The owner, Mustafa Askin, is probably the best guide you can get for Troy. He knows so much he even wrote a book about it! Haggle for a good price as he will make the site come alive for you. Without a guide the site won’t mean much as it’s very much in ruins. At the very least, get the audio guide available to purchase at the entrance windows.
On our last visit we opted to camp on the coast just 11km from the site near Yeniköy. There is a basic campsite right next to the beach so you can sit back and imagine a fleet of a thousand ships sailing by to make their attack on Troy.
Assos / Behramkale – if you would prefer not to camp you could drive south, a further 64km from Troy, to the pretty pre Roman port of Assos. Assos Hotel has fairly cheap rooms and is located right on the water’s edge.
Known as the gateway to Ephesus, Selçuk is a small but bustling Turkish town. The town itself has lots of places to explore such as Saint John’s Basilica, the Temple of Artemis and the cemetery of the Severn Sleepers. Alternatively, if you happen to be in Selçuk on Saturday you can experience the local farmers market and get a glimpse of rural Turkish life.
The mighty Ephesus was the 4th largest city in the eastern Roman Empire and an absolute must visit on your trip to Turkey. You will need at least half a day here and I recommend getting there early to avoid the heat and big tour groups. As Turkey’s most complete ancient ruin site, even those not interested in history won’t fail to be impressed by the Grand Theatre and the Library of Celsus.
A short drive up into the mountains from Selçuk will bring you to Şirince village. The village was was previously inhabited by Greeks and their influence is still clear to see, but Şirince is most famous for it’s fruit wine. I’ll be honest, the fruit wine isn’t really to my taste but it is still fun to try as you wander around the cobbled stone alleyways.
Atilla’s getaway – Love, love, love this place! Atilla’s Getaway has always been a stop on the classic Turkish overland route, predominantly as a camping spot. Now, luxurious rooms have been added, so along with an outdoor pool, bar, terrace and pool table, it’s the perfect place to spend a night or two after a day of exploring. Atilla also cooks amazing food if you want an easy evening meal.
Travelling across Turkey we now head inland towards Pamukkale, which is a two for the price of one kind of site. Pamukkale consists of travertine terraces filled with pools of water, as well as the ruins of a Greek-Roman city. The white terraces have formed from calcium carbonate that has slowly been deposited by the flowing water of multiple hot springs. When the Roman’s happened upon the area they discovered the hot springs were a great place to rest their weary bones and promptly decided to build a city at the top!
Enter the site from the bottom and walk up through the terraces. No shoes are allowed on the travertines themselves in order to prevent erosion, so take a bag to carry them in. Once at the top you can then explore the ruined city of Hierapolis which is famed for it’s colonnaded street and numerous sarcophagi. If you’re happy to pay a little extra you can then bathe in the ancient pool at the top of the terraces, much like the Romans would’ve done. You can spend most of the day exploring this sight and as always, arrive early in the morning to beat the crowds.
Baydil Camping – there are numerous places to stay in Pamukkale but we camped at this campsite which is right at the bottom of the terraces. The campsite comes complete with it’s own waterpark, open in the summer months. The Natural Park just across the road can provide some nice reflection photos of the terraces, especially at sunset.
Ok I’ll hold my hands up and say Ölüdeniz wouldn’t normally be the kind of place I would visit as it’s more of a party beach town. However, if travelling on this route from Pamukkale to Kaş, it makes sense to stop here and use it as a base for lots of other activities.
This is probably the most famous activity in Ölüdeniz and no doubt offers the best view of the Blue Lagoon. This is still on my list of things to do so will report back after my next visit to Turkey!
Saklikent Gorge is one of the deepest gorges in the world and is a great place to cool off in the hot summer months. Upon entering the gorge the water is quite shallow and the gorge is quite wide but the more you venture in, the more narrow it becomes. River shoes are highly recommended along with a waterproof camera, just in case. For an extra cost you can try some river tubing for 30 minutes along the gentle rapids. There are also plenty of restaurants at the entrance to feed your hunger!
This is a huge Ghost Town just a short drive away from Ölüdeniz. It was once a bustling town comprised of Greeks and Turks living happily alongside each other. However, after the rise of the Turkish National Movement, minorities like the Greek Orthodox were forced to flee or face persecution. What remains is a museum village consisting of hundreds of abandoned Greek style houses which are free to roam around.
The Lycian Way is a long distance trail that runs for 540km along the Turkish coast from Fetiye to Antalya. The start of the trail is on the mountain just above Ölüdeniz. Taxi drivers in town will be more than happy to take you to the start and wait for your return. By hiking just a few kilometres you can get a feel of what the trail has to offer. It also provides the best views of Ölüdeniz beach and the blue lagoon (aside from paragliding!)
The beautiful bay of Butterfly valley can only be accessed by boat. There are many vendors in Ölüdeniz that offer full day tours to Butterfly valley. If you’re not keen on a boat trip you can drive to a view point high upon the cliffs above, just 10 minutes from Ölüdeniz.
Patara is another two for one kind of place, in that you have a beach and a Lycian/Roman ruin in close proximity to one another. Patara was an important Lycian city and was one of the “Big 6”. Patara’s importance is demonstrated by the presence of a parliament building. A place where members of the elected Lycian League met to discuss state affairs.
Xanthos was another important city in Lycia and was the capital city of the Lycian Federation. As well as the Harpy and pilar tombs, the amphitheatre and the Roman-Byzantine street, Xanthos also contains the Xanthian Obelisk. This pilar is covered with the longest Lycian inscription known to exist, a language which we still haven’t fully decoded.
Ah I love Kaş. It has a special little place in my heart and is my most visited place in Turkey. This seaside town is quieter than other resorts like Fetiye, Ölüdeniz or Antalya as it’s a little further away from either Dalaman or Antalya airports. Time spent in Kaş can be as busy or as relaxed as you would like it to be, since it has a variety of beaches and activities to suit.
Kaş has several beaches to chose from. The most popular is Kaputaş Beach as this is one of the few beaches with white sand. Arrive early to get one of the few parking spots or catch a dolmuş bus from the town centre. Our favourite beach is the quieter Büyük Çakıl.
The King’s Tomb is a 4th century BC Lycian sarcophagus situated right in the centre of the town. Located on Uzun Çerşi Sokak street if you’re not looking for it you might miss it, as it simply sits alongside the shops and restaurants.
The Antiphellos Theatre is a quaint site just outside Kaş town centre. It’s completely free and a great spot to enjoy sunset with the locals.
If you happen to be in Kaş on a Friday then the Friday market is a must for stocking up on fresh local produce. There is also a great Friday market in the nearby town of Demre. If you’re interested in what else Demre has to offer check out my post great day trips from Kaş. Spoiler alert – it contains information on discovering the true identity of Santa Claus!
Kaş camping – whilst this might not be the cheapest place to camp, it’s location is top notch. Just a short walk from the town centre Kaş camping has it’s very own private coastline. The campsite offers bungalows and more simple beach huts if you want to upgrade from a tent. Included in the fee is access to the sun beds where you can relax and take a dip in the ocean. It also has a diving outfit attached.
There are so many places to eat in Kaş it’s a little overwhelming so I’ve narrowed it down to my favourite three.
Lilly’s Place – amazing hand made pizza and pasta and a selection of craft beers. Yep, Craft beers in Turkey!!
Smiley’s – the best place in town for yummy local seafood
Ora Secret Garden – slightly hidden as the name suggests, this quiet spot is our favourite for Turkish classics such as güveç or alinazik.
Having driven along the coast for the final time you will arrive at Olympos. It is also the last of our Lycian cities before we head inland to central Turkey.
At night take a trip to see the Chimaera flames. From the car park it is a 20-30 minute hike up the side of Mt Olympos to see the naturally occurring cluster of flames that constantly burn from the rock. Most trips will run after dinner as the flames are best seen at night.
To access the beach you have to pay an entrance fee. This fee also grants you access to the ruins of Olympos, which you have to walk through in order to get to the beach beyond. The ruins are only small but worth a look around on your way to/from the beach.
Why in a tree house of course! It is the thing to do at Olympos and there are many places to choose, from but our favourite is Saban Tree Houses. If you don’t still harbour your childhood dream to sleep in a tree house, more comfortable en suite rooms are also available.
Göreme is the gateway to a big adventure playground! It’s the place where you can rise at the crack of dawn to take a hot air ballon flight, find adventure on a quad bike tour or go for a hike and get lost in places with romantic names such as love valley. The geology in the region of Cappadocia is very unique so it’s definitely worth having a few days to explore. This is without doubt one of Turkey’s top destinations.
This is probably what put Göreme on the tourist map. I’m sure you’ve seen photos on Instagram of hundreds of balloons at sunrise floating over the fairy towers. It’s an incredible experience. However, the secret is very much out and spaces on a balloon are becoming more of a premium. If you’re planning a trip to Göreme I strongly recommend you book yourself on a balloon at least 1 month in advance, if you’re planning on going during the peak summer months. Also, allow yourself at least 3 or 4 days in Göreme to allow for flights getting cancelled due to bad weather. Don’t worry, there are lots of other things that you can do to occupy your time Göreme, so it won’t be time wasted.
I’ve personally used Whoop Whoop Travel for reserving balloons so can highly recommend them. They won’t let you down.
There are no shortage of tours available in Göreme and the surrounding area but the best bang for your buck is the Green Tour. If you don’t have access to a car then this is the best tour to see sights that are difficult to get to on public transport. On the Green tour you will visit Derinkuyu Underground City, Ihlara Valley, Selime Monastery and the Göreme panorama viewpoint. It’s a full day and lunch is included.
Göreme is also home to some of the best carpet shops in Turkey. Located on Muze Caddesi, Sultan Carpets has a wide range of beautiful hand made carpets. Not in the market to buy? No problem, just pop in to say hi! Ali, the charming owner will be happy to talk all things carpets and show off the latest purchases in his collection.
Göreme is surrounded by beautiful landscapes in all directions so it’s not hard to find an enjoyable hike, but Pigeon Valley is probably my favourite.
This hike is around 3km one way hike. By taking the bus out of town you can then hike all the way back to your hotel/campsite. Take the bus destined for Nevşehir from the bus station in Göreme town centre. The bus will take you up out of Göreme and you’ll want to get off at the stop for Uçhisar Castle. You can tell the driver when you get on and he will let you know. Once off the bus, wander down the side alleys towards the castle. It’s not a castle as you might know it – it looks like a mountain with some windows cut into it. For an entrance fee you have the option to enter the castle and head to the top for some stunning views of the region.
Following your visit to the castle you can follow the path down into Pigeon valley. The trail is marked on maps.me. Approximately half the way into the hike the path will split. Follow the signs that direct you to the left and up out of the valley. If you ignore the signs and head straight on you will come to a dead end, though it does provide nice view of the valley. The vıew point ıs marked Pigeon Valley view on maps.me.
After climbing out of the valley and hiking around the rim you will drop back down into the valley once more. The trail from here to Göreme is obvious and there are several cafes along the way where you can stop for a çay break. The trail becomes more of a dirt road before then becoming tarmac. Follow this road into town and you’ll end up near to where you started, opposite the bus station.
When I’m hiking I always carry my trusty backpack filled with everything I need for a day of exploring. Have a look at what’s in my bag!
If you prefer to add a little adrenaline to your touring you could try some quad biking/ATV riding. There are a few options, from 2 hours to full day tours. We opted for the 2 hour sunset tour and it was a nice break from conventional bus tours and hiking. We used Cappadocia ATV tours where the guide was just a person to show us the way rather than a guide to talk about the area. We were happy with that but if you would prefer more guiding then I would chose a different company.
Kookaburra cave hotel – there many cave hotels to chose from in Göreme but this one is great. It’s small and has a lovely rooftop terrace to enjoy sunset. The owner is also an enjoyable character to chat with!
Alternatively you could camp at Dilek Camping just on the edge of town. A basic campsite but in a great location.
Sümela monastery has been under renovation for the last 4 years but it should be finished by this summer (2019). Sümela monastery was built in the 4th century by Greek Orthodox and perches improbably to the side of a huge cliff. Not many foreigners make it this far East but it is a great Turkey destination.
Park your car at the base of the mountain near the gift shops and restaurants, then hike the final 3km to the top car park. Through doing this, you will be able to appreciate the monastery’s location in all it’s glory. Just past the car park there is a small chapel which plays an informative video about the monastery. From the chapel it’s just a few hundred more meters to the monastery.
Camp at Sümela camping/ Sümer restaurant, which is on the access road to Sümela monastery.
The nearby town of Maçka has some cheap but basic hotels if you’d prefer a bed for the night, such the Vazelon Konaklama Tesisleri. This is a great little town where, as a tourist you’ll get lots of attention. On our last visit we stopped here for lunch where upon some students from the school opposite invited us in for a visit. With a little time on our hands we took them up on the offer and before long we were all sat in the head teachers office drinking chai and sharing life choices with students and teachers alike. The friendly and chatty students were at the vocational school studying to become nurses. A ton of selfies and a few chais later we were on a way, delighting in an unexpected but uplifting experience.
When I travel I like to really learn about the places I’m visiting so I usually have a Rough Guide close to hand. Pick up your Rough Guide to Turkey here.
Atatürk was a very forward thinking leader so as part of his reforms he decided that Turkey should convert to using a latin based script. Thankfully for us Westerners that makes trying to pronounce Turkish words a little easier. However, you will notice there are a few strange looking letters in there so here is a basic introduction to get you going.
- ç – ‘ch’ as in church. For example çay (chai)
- ş – ‘sh’ as in should. For example Kaş (Kash)
- ğ – is silent so just ignore it. For example President Erdoğan (Erdoan)
- ö – ‘ur’ as in fur.
- ü – just like German ü
- ı – the undotted i makes an ‘uh’ sound as in plus
- Hello – Merhaba
- How are you? – Nasilsin?
- I’m fine. How are you? İyiyim (pronounced ‘ee eem’) sağol, sen nasılsın?
- Thank you – Teşekkür ederim
- Please – lütfen
- OK – tamam
- Yes – Evet
- No – Hayır
- Where are the toilets? – Tuvalet nerede?
- Sorry – Pardon
Between the summer months April and October. The areas away from the coast get pretty cold in the winter months.
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